ভৃষ্টহিঙ্গুযুতং পুতং ঘোলিতং জালিরুচ্যতে
Dry roast asafoetida gum, make powder of it, wash and peel raw mango, put in a bowl of fresh water to remove the tannin. Grind the raw mangoes, mustard seeds, asafoetida, and salt, mix with plain water to make whey from it. Strain and store in a glass or stone jar. It is called "jali." It is used traditionally as a home remedy to improve voice quality, itchy tongue, loss of appetite or food apathy.
Mango Pickle - Aamer Acchar Morobba
By Barnali DuttaPublished:
Pickles made by traditional methods contain Lactobacillus produced by fermentation in brine [salt and water], though pickles made using vinegar are free from it. Lactobacillus bacteria make traditional pickles probiotic. Among other pickles mango pickle is the Most Preferred Pickle in whole of India. The choice, the availability, thousands of traditional recipes in every region, and the expertise skills of the masses create a distinct identification of Indian Mango pickles.
The native queen awakens in me when it comes to making pickles. Pickling and canning indigenously to serve with holiday brunch, busy day break-the-stress lunch box, and even serve alongside short-cut dashing dinner of hot paratha ‘n sweet pickle combo. This is my mother's MANGO MOROBBA recipe with lots of ginger and crushed peppercorn. I like to add some raisin at the end of the cooking process. Morobba is also one of the traditional techniques of preservation of food in sugar syrup other than storing as pickle.
- Big cubed unripe mango = 6 cups, select fresh, firm fruits free of spoilage
- White sugar = 4 cups
- Diluted limestone water = 1 cup
- Aniseeds = 2 teaspoon [slightly toasted]
- Black peppercorn = 2 teaspoon [slightly toasted]
- Raisin = 1 tablespoon
- Rock salt = 2 tsp
- Nutmeg powder = 1 pinch
- Deseeded dried red chili = 8 to 9
- julienne cut ginger [optional] = 8 to 9
- Cinnamon sticks = 1' one
- White Vinegar = 1 tablespoon
- To make clear limestone water soak 5g limestone in one litre of water for a day and take the clear water from the top.
- Peel the raw mango and cut it into cubes.
- Take 4 litre drinking water in a large bowl, add clear limestone water, which improves fruit firmness. Keep stagnated for 1 hour.
- Take another large bowl. Now filter the standing water from the top with a small cup by avoiding dull residue from the bottom of the limestone water very carefully. It is because dull limestone water will make the fruit hard thus Morobba cannot be cooked as per recipe.
- Soak cubed raw mango in clear limestone water for 1 hour. Strain the water from the mango on a colander. To remove excess lime, rinse and then re-soak the mangoes in fresh water for another hour. Repeat the rinsing and soaking steps two more times.
- Make the sugar syrup of balanced density, not too thick or watery.
- Add mangoes, black peppercorn and aniseed in the boiling sugar syrup. Boil for 2 to 3 minutes and put off the flame.
- Add nutmeg powder, rock salt and white vinegar.
- After cooling down 50% add julienne cut deseeded dried red chili, julienne cut ginger [optional], dried raisin, white vinegar and give a good stir with the cinnamon stick. Keep the cinnamon stick inside.
- Pour the Morobba in a sterile glass pickle jar now. Keep covered with a tissue paper for rest of the day.
- The perfect traditional mango morobba will be ready to be served by then.
DIVINE FRUIT MANGO
India occupies 54 per cent of the world’s production of mango. Mango was most extensively cultivated in Northern India, also including Bengal. There is a reference to a mango track forming the boundary of a village of Bengal. It is mentioned as a village product in inscriptions from different parts of the country as well as mentioned in large number of Bengali literature.
Many travelers like Hsuan-tsang, Ibne-Haukul, Ibn-Batuta, Ludovici de Varthema had a great liking for the fruit and lured the fruit and tree in their memories. The founder of Mughal dynasty in India, Babur was gifted by Daulat Khan Lodhi, the governor of Lahore half ripened mangoes preserved in honey and considering this as a good omen headed for India to won the contry from Ibrahim Lodhi at Panipat. During those days too mango had been the core ingredient of royal diplomacy.
The fruits and various plants have been granted sanctimonious position amongst Buddists, Hindus and Jains. As per the mythology, it is considered to be transformation of God of creation. It has also been described as Kalpa-Vriksha wish granting tree.
Various parts including leaves, flowers, wood are indispensable for various religious ceremonies and are used as offerings to various deities Use of festoons of mango leaves for decoration, dry twigs for homa are some of the examples of religious sanctity accorded to this tree.
One cool spring evening when the south wind was blowing softly, and the mango blossoms were nodding on the trees, king Bhoja was walking in his garden, accompanied by Kalidasa and Bhavabhuti. The king, charmed by the graceful motion of the mango blossoms, asked Kalidasa to tell him why they waved so prettily. Kalidasa replied, “it is evening and lo, I have come from Malay afar; I would pass one night in thy house, O graceful one. When the newly blossomed mango tendril is thus addressed by the wind, she shakes her head, and says ‘Nay, nay, nay.”
Mango Fruit - A cultural Identity
Chutneys and pickles constitute an important section of the fruit and vegetable processing industry in India. Fruits and vegetables form the most important constituent of these products. Onions, garlic, chilies and spices are also added in some recipes to improve the taste. Chutneys occupy a prominent place in Indian recipes. It is a product prepared by cooking the fruit in sugar syrup with salt, spices and vinegar or acetic acid to a thick consistency. There are many grades of chutneys – sweet / sliced / Lucknow mango chutney / Major Grey’s mango chutney / Colonel Skinner Mango Chutney prepared from sliced mango etc. Bengal chutney which contains mango in the form of cubes instead of slices and Kasmiri chutney prepared from mango pulp. In addition to mango, Major Grey contains candied peel, Colonel Skinner contains raisins and currants, and Bengal chutney contains mustard.
Commercially manufactured pickle bases are salt, oil, vinegar and sugar. These modern foods are the product of high heat and pressure which destroys nutrients and thus do not have the probiotic, enzymatic value of home-made fermented pickles. When looking to pickles for probiotics, choose naturally fermented kinds, where vinegar was not used in the pickling process. A sea salt and water solution feeds the growth of good bacteria and may give sour pickles some digestive benefits. These homemade fermented pickles are actually ancient methods of preserving fruits and vegetables for the off-season availability of food.
Basic principles of preservation of Chutneys and Pickle is to provide sufficient quantity of oil in the pickle to make a thin layer continuous at the top, which helps to create anaerobic conditions and a regular check the growth of aerobic microorganisms [aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts] which causes spoilage. Be sure to remove and discard a 1/2-inch slice from the blossom top and end of fresh fruit. Blossoms may contain an enzyme which causes excessive softening of pickles.
Do not use utensils made of materials that react with acid that includes brass, copper, galvanized or zinc-coated metal and cast iron. Stainless steel, glass or unchipped metal pans should be used when heating pickling liquids. Aluminum can be used if the brine will only be in it a short time.
Easy at home pickling flowchart [MANGO]
- Well matured green mangoes [Fruits and vegetables – maturity size should have been achieved and should be free from damage or spoilage.]
- Clean by washing and air drying.
- De-moistured and properly sliced with slicer. Properly sliced mangoes are kept aside.
- Put in the jar
- Add salt, chili, jeera and oil. Always use fresh spices.
- Keep in sunlight or in a room at temperature 40℃ to 50℃ for 10 days. Shaking jar at least twice a day to mix the salt and spices. Raw mangoes were dried at 40℃ and the result revealed more observable shrinkage in the mangoes pieces.
- Sliced mango converted to mango pickle by natural fermentation.
- Divide in small jars and use one by one. Leave ½” headspace, making sure the liquid juices cover the pieces of food.
- Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed, leaving ½” empty. Use a plastic knife or special bubble remover tool. Do not use metal knives or spoons.
- Storage should be at an ambient temperature in cool dry place. [Containers must be checked for proper dimensions, possible defects, weight and capacity.]
Salts in Pickling
Salt improves the taste and flavour, hardens the tissue of vegetables and controls fermentation. Salt contents 15% or above prevents microbial spoilage. This method of preservation is generally used for a pickle which contains very little sugar. Since the sugar content is less, sufficient lactic acid cannot be formed by fermentation to act as preservative. Regular consumption of pickles can lead to high sodium levels in the body, which is not good for people with hypertension or with problems regarding calcium absorption.
Use of canning or pickling salt is recommended. Fermented and non-fermented pickles may be safely made using either iodized or non-iodized table salt. However, non-caking materials added to table salts may make the brine cloudy. Flake salt varies in density and is not recommended for use.
Reduced-sodium salts may be used in quick pickle recipes. The pickles may, however, have a slightly different taste than expected, but use of reduced-sodium salt in fermented pickle recipes is not recommended.
Salt pickles contain fresh or brine-cured material preserved with 12 to 15% salt. Turmeric, chilli powder and spices are the other ingredients. Pickle in lime juice may be included in this group in which the finished product should contain not less than 12% salt and 1.2% acidity as anhydrous citric acid.
Oil pickle is a salt pickle with fresh oil [groundnut, sesame or mustard] as an additional ingredient. These are generally prepared from mango, lime and lemon. Preservation is achieved by restricting growth of surface yeast [scum] with a layer of oil. Pickle oils contain unsaturated fats, which should be consumed in moderation, or trans fats, which are bad for cardiovascular health.
Vinegar pickle is prepared either from fresh or brine-cured [salted preserved] material from which the salt has been leached out, and preserved using vinegar or dilute acetic acid and may or may not contain added sugar. Vinegar however can help lower blood sugar levels by reducing the breakdown of carbohydrates so the carbs are absorbed more and not all converted to sugar.
Sweet pickle is a product prepared from fresh or brine-cured fruits or vegetables, and contains salt, sugar, acetic acid or vinegar, oil and ground garlic, turmeric, chili [red, dry] and spices as ingredients, the whole mass is cooked.
Instant Sweet Mango Pickle - Traditional Recipe
- In an enamel or stainless steel pan heat the vegetable oil [10% oil for the whole quantity]. Fry chilies and jeera 0.2% by weight of mangoes and spices also 0.5% on the basis of weight of mangoes, remove from heat and add the mustard seeds, wait for the crackle.
- Now bring to boil then reduce heat and simmer. After frying is complete, pour gur 50% of weight of mangoes and cook it for 15 minutes to 20 minutes at 100℃. Ratio of gur should be 1:1, such that it is seemingly proportionate and develops an attractive appearance. The combination of jaggery, chili powder, turmeric, mustard seeds, spice mix like cinnamon, cardamom, black pepper, fennel are 50:8:0.3:0.2:4. When the gur becomes a viscous paste like liquid, add sliced mangoes to it and cook it for another 15 to 20 minutes.
- Now gur is completely adhered to the mangoes and sweet mango pickle is formed. Keep it uncovered for 15 minutes or longer until the and the added spices rise to the top. Add salt to taste, cool, and prepared mango pickles are now ready to be poured in the glass jars or bottles. This spicy and pungent mango pickle is dark in color. Add 10% oil, mix uniformly and blend well with the mango pieces so that the content is easy to mix and takes up a glossy appearance with good taste.
- Pack the jars, label it and store it at room temperature 30℃ to 35℃. The indigenous sweet pickle contains oil, although added sugar and salt have a preservative action, their concentration is not sufficient enough to preserve the product for long unless keep in the bright sunlight for 2 to 3 days and cool properly with light cover for 2 to 3 days before storing for the whole year. The oil helps in catalyzing the preservative effect. Check topping of the brine.
Drying is the oldest method of preserving food. Compared to other methods, drying is quite simple. Dried foods keep well because the moisture content is so low that spoilage organisms cannot grow and enzyme and chemical reactions are minimized and also do a better job at retaining taste, appearance and nutritive value of fresh food.
Drying is an excellent way to preserve foods that can add variety to meals and provide delicious, nutritious snacks.
Pulp of ripe mango is spread and sundried. On this dried layer, another layer of mango pulp is spread and dried. When a thick layer is formed, it is called Amaavat. It is laxative, light to digest, increases taste, alleviates thirst, vomiting, vata and pitta,
Temperature, pH, water activity, and oxygen are factors critical to the growth and activity of microorganisms and the activity of enzymes and chemicals. The preservation of food is accomplished by controlling these factors.
If the food looks suspicious, it would be better to toss it out than risk getting sick. Pieces of food should be covered with liquid with no discoloration or drying out at the top of the jar. In addition, there should not be unnatural discoloration in the food throughout the jar. Throw out anything with mould growing on it. Before opening the jar, look for signs of spoilage such as cloudy and/or bubbling liquid
It was like a ritual in Bengal that after monsoon is over all pickles and preserved food, woolen clothes, pashminas, rugs, razais, and quilts, costly fabrics, musical instruments, house library books has to be given one or two days sun bath in the month of Bhadra to kill the insects and revitalize the traditional assets.
Aavakaaya (South Indian pickled mango)
Aavakaaya is a variety of spicy and hot Indian pickle popular in South India with its origin in Andhra Pradesh.
Acar is a type of vegetable pickle made in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.
Achar, a word used in many Indo-Aryan languages for Indian pickle. Atjar/Acar, Dutch/Indonesian pickle
AmbaAmba is a tangy mango pickle condiment popular in Middle Eastern cuisine but also popular in India. Its name derives from the Sanskrit for mango
Atchara (also spelled Achara or Atsara), is a pickle made from grated unripe papaya popular in the Philippines is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods
Chakalaka is a South African vegetable relish, usually spicy, that is traditionally served with bread, pap, samp, stews or curries. To balance its fiery flavour, it is sometimes served with amasi (thick sour milk).
Chhundo is particularly a Gujarati dish is a kind of Indian pickle preparation as well as a condiment mostly made out of grated ripe mangoes, used in South Asian cuisine.
The word "chutney" derives from the Sanskrit word caṭnī, meaning to lick. Chutney is a family of condiments associated with South Asian cuisine made from a highly variable mixture of spices, vegetables, or fruit. As with other condiments such as relish or mustard, chutneys are based on a wide range of recipes and preparation methods, which can range from a wet to dry or coarse to fine and they can be combined with a wide variety of foods or used for dipping.
Mixed pickles are pickles made from a variety of vegetables mixed in the same pickling process. Mixed pickles are eaten much like other pickles: in small amounts to add flavor and to accent a meal.
Piccalilli is an English interpretation of Indian pickles, a relish of chopped pickled vegetables and spices regional recipes vary considerably.
Chow-chow is a North American pickled relish made from a combination of vegetables. Mainly green tomato, cabbage, chayote, red tomatoes, onions, carrots, beans, asparagus, cauliflower and peas are used. These ingredients are pickled in a canning jar. After preserving, chow-chow is served cold, most often as a condiment or relish.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar. The resulting food is called a pickle, or to prevent ambiguity, prefaced with the adjective pickled. The pickling procedure will typically affect the food's texture and flavor. In East Asia, vinaigrette (vegetable oil and vinegar) is used as the pickling medium.
Another distinguishing characteristic is a pH 4.6 or lower, which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling can preserve perishable foods for months. Antimicrobial herbs and spices, such as mustard seed, garlic, cinnamon or cloves, are often added. If the food contains sufficient moisture, a pickling brine may be produced simply by adding dry salt. For example, German sauerkraut and Korean kimchi are produced by salting the vegetables to draw out excess water. Natural fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the required acidity. Other pickles are made by placing vegetables in vinegar. Unlike the canning process, pickling (which includes fermentation) does not require that the food be completely sterile before it is sealed. The acidity or salinity of the solution, the temperature of fermentation, and the exclusion of oxygen determine which microorganisms dominate, and determine the flavor of the end product.
When both salt concentration and temperature are low, Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominates, producing a mix of acids, alcohol, and aroma compounds. At higher temperatures Lactobacillus plantarum dominates, which produces primarily lactic acid. Many pickles start with Leuconostoc, and change to Lactobacillus with higher acidity.
Ever since the Vedic period, mangoes have been highly appreciated in ayurvedic healing and cooking. Mango trees belong to the same family as cashews and pistachios, and can grow to the height of 50 feet in India. All parts of the tree the bark, leaf, flowers, fruit and seed are used for different purposes. The Mango tree has the mythological, religious, historical, culinary and medicinal importance.
All parts of the Mango plant from the seeds and flowers to the leaves and gum are used in traditional medicine, but the fruits are most important. They are used for strengthening the nervous and blood systems, ridding the body of toxins and treating anaemia. In Ayurveda, dried Mango flowers are used to cure dysentery, diarrhoea and inflammation of the urinary tract. In South Asian folk medicine, rheumatism and diphtheria is treated using the astringent bark of the Mango tree. Cracked skin on the soles of feet and scabies is cured by applying the gum, which oozes from trunk of the tree. Powdered seeds are used to stem bleeding. Juice of the fresh mango bark is also valuable in heavy bleeding during menstruation, i.e. menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, mucus and pus discharges from the uterus and bleeding or haemorrhages from uterus. Fruits are eaten as a kidney tonic and to cure headaches. Leaf, bark, stem and green unripe and half ripe fruits inhibit growth of bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. Ripe mangos contain anti-fungal properties, juice from the seeds give relief from diarrhoea and young leaves prevent sickness.
Mangoes are also a great way to replenish that lost potassium. Mangoes also serve as nutritional supplement, providing remarkable quantities of microelements like selenium, copper and zinc.
Immature mango leaves are cooked and eaten in Indonesia and Philippines.